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According Ellis is a bundle of many options both positive and negative, guilty and hostility and he is made up of illogical thinking. Albert Ellis, the founder maintains that human being have the capacity to be both rational and irrational, to act in their own best interest as well as to be self- destructive.

Also according to Ellis individuals tend to think, feel, and act simultaneously, therefore any intervention directed at one of this behavioral elements affects the other two. Ellis viewed that rational behavior is effective and potentially productive, whereas irrational behavior result in unhappiness and nonproductive. In other words, a person basically becomes emotional because his thinking is irrational or his thinking is usually beclouded by his rough emotions. But when this does not occur, it can be said that that man is rational in his thought and free from emotionality such as anger, illogicality and destructive tendencies.

Supporting this Ellis assumes that many types of emotional problems result from irrational patterns of thinking. People with emotional problems develop belief systems leading to self- talk, faulty logic and assumptions. As the person continues to tell himself that he is stupid, bad and unworthy, he is unable to overcome his emotional problems and difficulties. People have predisposition for self preservation, happiness, thinking and verbalizing, loving, communion with others and growth and self-actualization.

They also have propensities for self destruction, avoidance, thought, procrastination, endless repetition of mistakes, superstitions, intolerance, perfectionalism and self- blame, and avoidance of actualizing growth potentials. Taking for granted that human is fallible. Ellis contends that people do not need to be accepted and love even though this may be highly desirable. The therapy teach client how to feel undepressed even when they are unaccepted and unloved by significant others.

Although REBT encourages people to experience healthy feelings of sadness over being unaccepted, it attempts to help them find ways of overcoming unhealthy feelings of depression, anxiety, hurt, loss of self-worth, and hatred. Ellis insists that blame is at the core of most emotional disturbances.

Therefore, to recover from neurosis or a personality disorder, we had better stop blaming ourselves and others. Instead, it is important that we learn to fully accept ourselves despite our imperfections. Such demands create disruptive feelings and dysfunctional behaviors Ellis, a, a Bellow is six basic musts or irrational beliefs that we internalize that inevitably lead to self defeat 1. When one is capable of admitting his own weaknesses, he is bound to be more rational and so less wicked. When man realize that some problems have to be lived with, he becomes more rational in his thinking and emotions.

These ratings constitute one of the main sources of our emotional disturbances. He reported that he had eight hospitalizations between the ages of five and seven. One of these lasted nearly a year.

1. Introduction

His parents provided little or no emotional support for him during these years, rarely visiting or consoling him. Ellis stated that he learned to confront his adversities as he had "developed a growing indifference to that dereliction. Ellis entered the field of clinical psychology after first earning a Bachelor of Arts in business from the City University of New York. He began a brief career in business, followed by one as a writer.

These endeavors took place during the Great Depression that began in , and Ellis found that business was poor and had no success in publishing his fiction. Finding that he could write non-fiction well, Ellis researched and wrote on human sexuality.

The Choice: Embrace the Possible

His lay counseling in this subject convinced him to seek a new career in clinical psychology. In , Ellis began his studies for a Ph. He completed his Master of Arts in clinical psychology from Columbia ]] in June , and started a part-time private practice while still working on his Ph. D degree—possible because there was no licensing of psychologists in New York at that time. Ellis began publishing articles even before receiving his Ph. He concluded that only the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory met the standards of a research-based instrument.


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After the completion of his doctorate, Ellis sought additional training in psychoanalysis. Like most psychologists of that time, he was interested in the theories of Sigmund Freud. Shortly after receiving his Ph. D in , Ellis began a personal analysis and program of supervision with Richard Hulbeck whose own analyst had been Hermann Rorschach, a leading training analyst at the Karen Horney Institute.

Karen Horney would be the single greatest influence in Ellis's thinking, although the writings of Alfred Adler , Erich Fromm and Harry Stack Sullivan also played a role in shaping his psychological models. Ellis credits Alfred Korzybski and his book, Science and Sanity , for starting him on the philosophical path for founding rational-emotive therapy.

In addition, Ellis [ 40 ] stated that the best method for altering irrational beliefs was to change the thinking system or belief of the individual. REBT practitioners have also noted that any alteration in irrational beliefs of an individual will invariably lead to a decrease in the emotional disturbance induced by stress.

Given that individuals have the natural capacity to build up irrational thoughts and beliefs, they also have the ability to vigorously question and change those thoughts and beliefs using REBT techniques. The teachers were also able to reduce their levels of work-related stress.

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Overcoming resistance a rational emotive behavior therapy integrated approach

This study outcome was consistent with the assertions of REBT experts, who have acknowledged that since stress was caused by an individual's irrational beliefs, any changes to irrational beliefs would invariably lead to the reduction of emotional disturbances. One limitation of the present study was the fact that the control group was not given any intervention at all.

It has been suggested that future studies should compare the efficacy of an REBT intervention with other therapeutic approaches used in the management of stress. Also, the questionnaire, which assessed the stress level of teachers, has not been widely validated. Further research is needed to ascertain the factor structure and internal consistencies of the TSQ through cross-cultural validation procedure.

Practitioners could also argue that our study was limited by the fact that we combined TSQ and TIBS scores instead of the subscales to interpret the study outcomes. While this has been acknowledged, we hope to emphasize that the use of combined TSQ scores and TIBS scores were considered appropriate for the study in that previous studies have shown that summated scales can offer accurate benchmarks for the interpretation of treatment outcomes, as well as for determining and arriving at consistent conclusions regarding changes in irrational beliefs as a psychological construct.

This study examined the usefulness of an REBT intervention on stress management and irrational beliefs of special education teachers in elementary schools in Southeast Nigeria. The REBT intervention resulted in a significant diminution in teacher stress for those who participated in treatment group in contrast with those who participated in the no-intervention control group.

The positive gains of the REBT intervention were present at follow-up evaluations. The outcome of this research is relevant to curb the stressors in the current education system, especially for special education teachers. To that end, more clinical assessments are needed to further confirm the impact of an REBT intervention on stress management and irrational beliefs in this population of teachers.

Further studies are also required to determine if an REBT program may likewise lessen the emotional distress of these teachers. Conceptualization: Liziana N. Onuigbo, Chiedu Eseadi, Samuel C. Anyanwu, Francisca C. Okeke, Patricia U. Agu, Angie I. Oboegbulem, Ngozi H. Data curation: Liziana N. Formal analysis: Liziana N.

Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy vs. Cognitive Therapy? (REBT vs .CT)

Funding acquisition: Liziana N. Investigation: Liziana N.

Albert Ellis - Wikiwand

Methodology: Liziana N. Project administration: Liziana N. Okeke, Angie I. Resources: Liziana N.

Anyanwu, Patricia U. Software: Chiedu Eseadi, Joy I. Nwankwor, Uche Nichodemus Eze. Supervision: Chiedu Eseadi, Samuel C. Validation: Liziana N. Onuigbo, Francisca C. Agu, Ngozi H.